In 326 BCE,
Alexander of Macedon invaded India, it comprised battle hardened Macedonian
soldiers, Greek cavalry, Balkan Fighters and Persian allies, so handling victory
to Alexander is like describing Hitler as the conqueror for Russia because the
Germans advanced up to Stalingrad.
Alexander Invaded India?
campaign of Alexander the Great began in326 BC. After conquering Persia,
Alexander launched a campaign into India. The Battle of the Jhelum river
against a regional Indian King, Porus is considered by many Historians, Peter
Connolly being one of them, as the costliest battle that the Armies of
What was the
Rationale for this Campaign?
rationale for this campaign is usually said to be Alexander’s desire to conquer
the entire Known world, according to Greeks which ended in India. After the
conquests of Carthage and Rome, Alexander died in Babylon on June 11, 323 BC.
In 321 BC, two years after Alexander’s death, Chandragupta Maurya of Magadha
founded the Maurya Empire in India. After the death of Spitamenes and his
marriage to Roxana to cement his relations with his new central Asian
found after analysis was that for some strange reasons, History lied to us, let
me give you detailed Version—
First of all,
we have to look into the details of whether “Did the European force headed by
Alexander really “Conquer” India and “Vanquish” the Indians under the Paurava
King Porus as claimed by Western (British) writers and Historians? “
Gregory Zhukov, the legendary Russian Commander, said the Macedonians had
suffered a catastrophic defeat in India. In the final part of this analysis,
fact and Fiction are separated. After defeating Persia in the year 334 BCE,
Alexander of Macedon was irresistibly drawn towards the great Indian Landmass.
The Persians, warned him the country was no easy target, that several famous
conquerors had fallen at the gates of India. The Persians told him how their
greatest King Porus, who had conquered much of a civilised world, had been
killed in the battle with Indian Soldiers exactly two centuries before
queen Semiramis, who had crossed the Indus with 400,000 highly trained troops,
escaped with just 20 troops, the rest being slaughtered by Indians. What we
find to our Surprise is that in Ancient India, 150 years ago, before Alexander,
Indian Archers and Cavalry formed a significant component of the Persian Army
and played a Key role in subduing Thebes in Central Greece. Alexander was
fearless. He wanted to invade India. It would prove to be a strategic blunder.
In Zhukov’s words—
alexander’s failure to gain a Position in India and the defeat of his Successor
of Seleucus Nikator, the relationship between Indians and the Greeks &
Romans was mainly through trade and diplomacy. Also, the Greeks and other
ancient people did not see themselves as in any way superior, Only different”.
Alexander of Macedon invade India?
statement by Russia’s marshal Gregory Zhukov on the Macedonian invasion of
India in 326 BCE is very significant one because unlike the prejudiced colonial
and western historians, the Greeks, and later Romans, viewed Indians
differently. According to Alexander, that the Indians were the noblest among
all Asians. In fact Arrian and other Greeks say that the Indians were
relentless in their attacks on the invaders. What the historians found was that
Punjab & Sindh were fierce, the in the Eastern parts of India, the men were
superior in stature and courage. But the claim of western Historians, in whose
view the one victory over King Porus amounted to the “Conquest of India”. But
the Greeks never ever claimed that.
Let me give
you a brief of all the battles fought by Alexander over Porus during Invasion period.
Hydaspes—This was the hardest ever battle, described by Greek writers, battle
of Hydaspes(Jhelum) as the hardest fought battle of all Alexander’s battles.
According to a professor of history at University of Houston, Frank Lee Holt,
“The only reference in Arrian’s history to a victory celebration by Alexander’s
army was after the battle with Porus”. I was quite shocking to know the fact that;
Alexander’s army did not indulge in celebrations after the Battle of Gaugamela
where they defeated 200,000 Persians. There were no festivities announced after
the battle of Issus where they defeated a mixed force of Persian Cavalry and
Greek mercenaries. They also considered themselves extremely Lucky to survive
after the clash with the Hindu army, with its elephant corps.
Surprising & Amazing fact about alexander of Macedon—
Greeks, alexander was apparently so impressed by Porus he gave back his Kingdom
plus the territories of King Ambhi of Taxila who had fought alongside the
Macedonians. Alexander’s ally on the condition he would be given Porus Kingdom.
So why reward the enemy, whose army had just mauled the Macedonians? The only
answer is at the battle of Hydaspes, the Macedonians realised they were dealing
with an enemy of uncommon valour. Sensing defeat they called for a Truce, which
Porus had accepted. Here we find a twist—The Indian King struck a bargain—in
return for Ambhi’s territories, would assist the Macedonians in leaving India
post—Hydaspes charitable behaviour, as per Greek is very much uncharacteristic
and very much unlikely. For, in battles before and after, he used to massacre
everyone in the cities he subdued. As they journeyed, alexander and his
soldiers saw many new and strange sights. They passed through boundless forests
of mighty trees beneath whose branches roosted flock of of wild peacocks. They
saw serpents, glittering with golden scales, glide swiftly through the
underwood. At length alexander reached the city of Lahore and marched on the
banks of river Sutlej beyond. He was very curious and eager to reach the holy
river Ganga and conquer the people there. But his men had worn out of the
hardships of the way, also fighting under the sun or rains of India, and begged
him to go no further. So greatly, against his will Alexander turned back. The
Greeks never returned, they settled down the rivers Jhelum and Indus. And very
little was known about India those days. The fighters thought that they reached
Nile and that they would return home very soon, but they soon discovered their
mistake and after long journeying’s reached Macedonia again.
marched North of India, he hadn’t really conquered, the people although he left
Greek garrisons and Greek rulers behind him, and when he died the people
quickly revolted against the rule of Macedonia. So, all trace of alexander&
his conquests had vanished and the names of the cities which he founded had been
changed. But for long ages, the work of the great “Secunder”, as he was known
and called him too, lived in the memory of the Indians.
Alexander the Great in India?
believe and say that Alexander was not defeated militarily. He defeated King Porus
at the Battle of Hydaspes, albeit with high casualties. The King however, did
not proceed further, was forced to retreat. The reasons that the army were
terribly missed their families and became tired of endless battles.
Soldiers feared the might of Nanda army, which had 6,000 war Elephants.
was also very much wounded. Indian arrow penetrated one of his lungs in the
What we can
draw conclusions from the above points, according to me is that it was the
might and fighting spirit of the Indian Army. Battle of Hydaspes and the
Mallian Campaign, Indian resistance was fierce. It was a tough battle for
Alexander unlike Persia, In India he had to Siege each Indian city one by one
to capture it. If he invaded Nanda empire he then had to face severe fight from
opposite side, and probably ended up in the defeat. Greek soldiers know very
well about this, and lost their hope to fight. Alexander was also severely
wounded due to fierce fight and relentless resistance of the Indian Army as
& Extreme weather conditions, lands, rivers, and people defeated Alexander
the Macedonian. What we find in other places that Alexander conquered, he left
no satrap, he founded no monument and left no permanent monument in India. I
really wonder was his journey just was a conquest to India, or it was misjudged
territory by Alexander in the greed of Capturing more territories. Many version of this Greedy Conqueror Alexander,
The Greek & Roman Civilisations are the Wellspring of the Western thought
process, science & culture, religion, so A defeat for Alexander would be
quite disheartening for them to accept and digest at all. I leave at this
juncture for you all to Keep Guessing, My Conclusion – India is a Nation,
though many tried to attack & destroy our civilization & Culture, but
all will come and go, we are strong Rashtra & a Nation which will destroy
enemies with our noblest intentions, similarly we hope Pakistan gets a straight
& clear message that India & Indians will always be” UNITEDFOREVER”. We have a master Strategist
Like Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya, Our PM Modi who walks the talk with his
strategies has Put Proxies in their Places.
Surprising & Amazing fact about alexander of Macedon---
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